"For some reason modern medicine has itself turned a corner and entered a darkness and is now committing crimes against humanity unequalled
in the history of our race."
--Dr. Mark Sircus
Alternative Cancer Treatments

1979 Around January of that year, I went home to die.   ..cont. 
I was diagnosed with stage 2 stomach cancer, chronic bronchitis, acutely infected ovarian cysts, arthritis, sciatica, low thyroid, anemia and a heart condition. Besides that I had chronic ear infections and long-standing clinical depression. The late Dr. Harold Dick, N.D., known as a "naturopathic oncology pioneer" cured me in 5 weeks. It required the diagnosis (the Carroll Food Test) of digestive enzyme deficiency food intolerances which most people have and few know about, and it also identified the primary tissue salt deficiency, along with treatment with glandular protomorphogens to restore glandular health, and Constitutional Hydrotherapy to bring about detoxification, to stimulate blood circulation and the activity of the vital organs and to jump-start the immune system. It turned out to be the basic foundation of the most successful healing system I've ever witnessed.
1986 My 5-year-old daughter was forcibly vaccinated and immediately developed a flesh-eating infection so virulent that my husband and I became infected from contact. Naturopathic medicine brought us back from the brink.
Later that year we were introduced to escharotic cancer salves and treated a dog tumor, my husband's cirrhosis of the liver, various skin lesions, moles, fungal infections, and a lump in my thigh. It eventually helped clear up the remaining symptoms from my husband's flesh-eating infection after he was forced to submit to antibiotic treatment which made a mess of it. There was much more, gallbladder problems in 1999, adrenal deficiency 2001, injury in 2002, arthritis, diabetes, and other issues between 2003-2012, including glaucoma--cured.

This is why I research and write about alternative medicine. It's a debt.

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*Alternative treatments for cancer, chronic-degerative disease, infection, stress, harmful emotions and other disorders and conditions;
*Information about junk science and bad medicine, including unsafe and ineffective vaccines and undiagnosed medical conditions mimicking child abuse and Shaken Baby Syndrome;

Natural Healing Information
This site provides starting points. The rest of the journey must be yours.

"Truth wears no mask, seeks neither place nor applause, 
bows to no human shrine; she only asks a hearing"


Essential Fatty Acids

Flaxseed Oil + Sulfurated Proteins for Cancer: Dr. Johanna Budwig, M.D.


Essential Fatty Acids Are Essential!

Supplement to The Art of Getting Well
Sources are given in references.
Authors of contributions\quotations are alphabetically arranged

Dr. Arba L. Agar, Jr., Dr. S.B. Bittiner, Dr. S.S. Bleehen, Dr.Johanna Budwig, G.O. Burr, M.M. Burr, Harvey F. Carroll, Ph.D.,Dr. I. Cartwright, Perry A. Chapdelaine, Jr., M.D., Dr. Endres, Franklin H. Epstein, M.D., Udo Erasmus, Dr. Garg, Gerson, Dr.Hoppe-Seyler, Dr. W. Jubiz, J.M. Kremer, Lebedow, Dr. Orville, A.Levander, Warren M. Levin, M.D., Liebig, Charlotte Lodi, Wayne Martin, B.S., Meyerhof, Dr. A. Michalek, Mike Minarsich, Ray Peat, Ph.D., Pflueger, Pritikin, Gus J. Prosch, Jr., M.D., Rosenfeld, Szent-Gyorgy, Dr. W.F. Tucker, Robert Walberg, O.Warburg
Responsible editor/writer Anthony di Fabio.

For years establishment medical practitioners have told folks that supplemental vitamins and minerals were unnecessary, that what we eat is sufficient provided we eat plenty of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.It’s a real wonder that some farmer didn’t explain that hogs, horses, chickens and cows had to have the very best, including a wide variety of vitamins and minerals, or they didn’t fatten, have energy, grow and give quality eggs or produce milk, respectively. And certainly at the same time some minister, rabbi or priest could have explained that humans were both animal and spirit, and that if the spirit wanted to stay in the animal carcass it had better see to it that the carcass was provided with at least the same good vittles provided to the farm animals.

We have indeed come a long way since those days when everything related to good nutrition and it's importance was pooh-poohed. Some physicians still pooh-pooh good nutrition. They are slowly disappearing, and if one wants to, one can find a doctor somewhere nearby who has studied beyond his medical school training. When my eldest son completed his M.D. degree, he went into the school knowing more about nutrition than the majority of his teachers. He said, “You know dad, they still haven’t taught us about nutrition.” If they had done so, they would have sung the same theme still played by “trained” dietitians: “Just eat a balance of carbohydrates, fats and protein!” -- no regard for quality or content!

For the most part, knowledgeable physicians are self-trained regarding nutrition. Being interested in wellness, rather than sickness, such physicians know at least as much as a successful hog farmer, and they also realize that no one can stay well in the absence of the dozens of trace elements and thousands of complex compounds that were built into us during the evolutionary millennia of our bodies.

One of the most overlooked foods when producing wellness is utilization of the proper oils and fats. When the “trained” dietitian says to use “fats”, s/he usually means to stay away from certain natural fats that our bodies evolved with. S/he usually means to stay away from butters, animal fats, and other saturated oils and fats, -- to go along with the Madison Avenue hype paid for by those who have chemically changed these fats into a variety that has long shelf life, so-called “polyunsaturated” oils and hydrogenated fats (i.e. margarine, various touted cooking oils, et. al.)

Aside from sugar, I suspect that this one factor in life --propagandizing about hydrogenated oils to an unsuspecting public -- has contributed more toward debilitating diseases than any other single factor! I was pleased when my son brought to me a copy of an article titled “The Effect of Dietary Supplementation with n-3 [Omega3] Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Synthesis of Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor by Mononuclear Cells” by Endres, et al.,“Fish-oil Fatty Acid Supplementation in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Double-blind, Controlled, Crossover Study,” by Kremer JM, Jubiz W, Michalek A., et al, and by Bittiner SB, Tucker WF, Cartwright I, Bleehen SS, “A Double Blind Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Fish Oil in Psoriasis1.”

In the Endres, et al. abstract is the following: “We conclude that the synthesis of IL-1 Beta, IL-1 Alpha, and tumor necrosis factor can be suppressed by dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 [Omega 3] fatty acids. The reported anti-inflammatory effect of thesen-3 fatty acids may be mediated in part by their inhibitory effect on the production of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor.”

What does this mean? It means that someone in the establishment is paying attention to doctors that know something about nutrition. It also means that if you will take the right kind of fatty acids (oils and fats) you will have less inflammation and generally have better health!

In the Science News, which abstracts complex studies for easy reading, is the article “Fish Oil: New Hope in Fighting Malaria,” by Orville A. Levanter and Arba L. Agar, Jr 2, they say, “fed mice a diet high in fish oils but containing no vitamin E.” The malarial parasite (Plasmodium yoelii or P. berghei) were devastated. This was particularly interesting because by diet alone, strains of the parasites found in mosquitoes that have developed a resistance to Chloroquine —an anti malarial drug — were affected.

On the same page was another interesting report, titled “It’s Not Fish Oil, But. . .” reporting what many physicians oriented toward nutrition already knew: that oils from certain plants, like soybean, can be converted to Omega 3 fatty acids (one of the essentials) by humans. In Archives of Virology 3 is "Unsaturated Free Fatty Acids Inactivate Animal Enveloped Viruses," such as herpes, influenza,Sendai, Sindbis within minutes of contact!

From 1994 forward, professional articles are rapidly appearing, explaining that trans fatty acids are indeed the "bad" fats! What are the right kind of oils? Those born since World War II may be totally surprised to find that virtually every kind of oil that we’ve been told is good, is bad, and almost every kind of oil that we’ve been told is bad is really good. I remember when the cost of butter rose so high during World War II, that we were more than pleased to get “a satisfactory substitute” called “margarine” for very low cost. In Iowa, a dairy state, where the laws prohibited selling margarine of the color of butter, my mother purchased the margarine in a plastic sack. The plastic sack also held another breakable plastic package that contained butter®

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(Medical data is for informational purposes only. You should always consult your family physician, or one of our referral physicians prior to treatment, coloring and added vitamins.)

Mother broke the smaller package inside the larger by squeezing and then kneaded the larger one before opening it. When the larger was opened the mixture apparently looked and spread just like butter, but obviously had a higher melting point. For years, I and my kids have unwittingly used this dangerous product, along with many new kinds of equally damaging cooking oils and fats. Margarine is not good for you, but butter is. Saturated animal fat is better for you than hydrogenated vegetable fats.

Most peanut butters contain bad oils. French fries and potato and corn chips are prepared with hydrogenated (and often stale, broken-down) oils.Cold pressed oils are best, or something like “Pam” (Olive Oil) for cooking — but remember — oils heated over 350 become changed to an undesirable form — all according to referral physician Gus J. Prosch, M.D. in Chapter IX “Nutritional Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis” in The Art of Getting Well. (See http://www.arthritistrust.org.)

Gus Prosch, Jr., M.D. recommends cooking only in Virgin Olive Oil. Olive Oil does not break down until 400 is reached. He says: “Turn down the stove temperature and cook slowly. That way you’ll get some of the necessary fatty acids along with your healthier food. Olive Oil (Virgin) is not linolenic acid, but rather oleic, which is a good fatty acid that helps to normalize cholesterol levels in the blood, as seen in people on the Mediterranean diet. Such a diet lowers cholesterol as compared to the American diet.” Others recommend cooking in either virgin olive oil or coconut oil.

But won’t these animal fats and oils make us fat or provide us with too much cholesterol? The index measure for “too much cholesterol” is a very poor measure for heart risk. The Madison Avenue folks do us a dis-service in selling us on the idea that we must be careful of too much cholesterol. News media assist this dis-service, probably through shallowness and ignorance or because their major advertisers advocate hydrogenated oils and tout the supposed dangers of too much cholesterol .

According to Gus Prosch, Jr., M.D., our bodies normally manufacture cholesterol, and this substance is nearly as important as oxygen. It helps produce hormones and is found in all of our cells. Fifteen to 20% of our cholesterol comes from our diet, whereas the body manufacturers 80-85% of it. The body requires cholesterol, and if we do not provide the body with substances to create cholesterol, our bodies will automatically manufacture it. If we provide the substance through ingestion of foods, our bodies do not manufacture very much. There is a homeostatic mechanism operating — a tendency to restore cholesterol to a pre-determined level once the “mechanism” has been disturbed or changed — meaning that the amount of cholesterol we have at any one time is a function of our genetics and our needs more than it is a function of eating the wrong kinds of fats.

I think there is more evidence to show that a better index of risk to the heart and circulatory system is the ratio of High Density Lipids to Low Density Lipids, and this ratio may have very little to do with the amount of fats or oils eaten -- and probably more to do with the kinds of oils eaten, our lifestyle (including diet and stress) and genetics.

In An Update on Treatments for Hyperlipidemia, Cardiovascular Research Ltd5., the author says that “The Cholesterol Controversy Requires Clarification: While cholesterol has been magnified as the primary cause of coronary artery disease, the discriminating physician knows that this essential lipid is a critical component of nervous tissue and other vital organs. Cholesterol in its pure state is also a potent anti-oxidant. Any attempt to block the liver’s ability to manufacture cholesterol may be injurious to the patient over the long term . . . one should also consider the increased cancer risk from substitution of polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Heated vegetable oils are high in lipid peroxides, a known contributing factor to the formation of atheromatous plaque along the arterial intima.”

Oxidized cholesterol may be most damaging to health, but an appropriate diet in other respects may limit this danger. In “Mechanisms of Disease,” (Franklin H. Epstein, M.D., Editor) 6, a most interesting mechanism for Atherogenesis (the start of atherosclerosis) is given, with a large bibliography. The article is too technical for us, but of interest to physicians. It is obvious from this paper that the measurement of cholesterol per se is not very critical for making the proper health determinations.

In a paper titled “Fish Oil, Fatty Acids and Human Health” Capsulations TM, Harvey F. Carroll, Ph.D.7 lists Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA), Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), DocosahexaenoicAcid (DHA) as the n-3 fatty acids, often referred to as “Omega- 3”. This paper is also too technical to reproduce here, and so I merely quote Carroll’s conclusion. He has an extensive bibliography which can be obtained through the above address. Carroll says: “The n-3 [Omega-3] fatty acids have useful metabolic effects with little or no side effects. But note that species differences in eicosanoid metabolism indicate that animal results may not always be applicable to humans. All in all, it would seem that increasing the consumption of fish and/or supplementing with EPA(Eicosapentaenoic Acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) may not only help prevent cardiovascular disease, but may actually help in limiting the damage of an infarct (an area of coagulation of dead or dying tissue due to obstruction of blood circulation). And there are many other diseases where modification of eicosanoid metabolismby n-3 [Omega 3] fatty acids might have beneficial results. A reasonable intake of n-3 [Omega- 3] fatty acids as part of a good diet could be obtained by eating fish two or three times a week or taking fish oil supplements that supply around 1 g EPA/day.”

In the Townsend Letter for Doctors, Wayne Martin, B.S.8, states this: “I know a great lot about flax seed oil and I will tell some of it here. From Berlin east across Poland and Russia before about 1930, small food stores had presses for the pressing of flax seed oil. On pressing flax seed, about 40% of the oil was removed. The customer would be given the oil and the press cake which contained the other 60% of the oil. This press cake would be taken home and used in making blackbread. The flax seed cake was what made bread black.

Newly pressed flax seed oil has a pleasant nutty aroma. Let freshly pressed oil sit on the shelf for a week or so and brown phosphatides will settle out at the bottom of the bottle. “I do not know how much oil one can get by pressing soya beans, but the oil one would get would have a most unpleasant and disagreeable odor. Also, as soya oil is higher in phosphatides, there would be about 3 times as much brown sludge settled out. Refined, this sludge is soya lecithin.

“I see nothing even remotely like what I have described here, being sold in health food stores as cold pressed oil. I suspect that what is being sold is refined oil, sold under a false label. By the by, with the exception of flax and olive oils, most crude oils have an unpleasant aroma and it is for that reason that they are refined. “There is nothing wrong with hexane extraction of vegetable oils. . .“If one wants some PUFAS (PolyUnsaturated Fatty Acids) [essential fatty acids] free from trans isomers one should eat food containing them such as walnuts which are 50% oil by weight.”

“Cold-Pressed Unrefined Linseed Oil Puts Essential Nutrients Back on the Menu” was written by Mike Minarsich 9. I hereby present it to you with his permission because it covers so well linoleic and linolenic fatty acids discussed in Prosch’s article on nutrition 4. (Also see"Proper Nutrition for Rheumatoid Arthritis," http://www.arthritistrust.org.) Mike Minarsich writes: “Back in

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Grandmother’s day, the food on the dinner table was healthy and whole. She cooked the rice and scraped the carrots and snapped the beans and served greens fresh from the garden. Today, thanks to the technology of the modern food manufacturers, we have a vast selection of quick-fix processed foods that get us in and out of the kitchen fast. If we insist on a menu of convenience foods, we must rely on dietary supplements to protect us from the chemical additives and preservatives food processors put in and to replace what the food processors take out.

“The Essential Fatty Acids: Lost, Strayed or Stolen?“ An important casualty of the modern age, stolen away by the food technologists, is the essential fatty acids. What they don’t teach us in Nutrition 101 is that the typical American diet is dangerously deficient in the fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic, so important to life and health that they are medically and scientifically termed essential. What this means is that the human body cannot manufacture these fatty acids from any other nutrient or combination of nutrients. They must be supplied daily in the diet.

“Fish oil has received a lot of good press lately, but fish oil doesn’t provide the essential fatty acids. The best grade fish oils provide EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid). Research shows that these Omega -3 fatty acids may provide protection against heart disease. But the fatty acids EPA and DHA cannot properly be termed “essential,” because the body can manufacture them as needed when supplied with" essential fatty acid, linolenic acid.

“Olive oil and the healthy 'Mediterranean Diet' have received their share of attention recently as well. Put olive oil in the 'no harm, no foul' category. This age-old natural oil is a mono-unsaturate with a surprising ability to help lower cholesterol levels. But olive oil, healthy as it is, doesn’t [provides 8% linoleic acid] essential fatty acids.[If you buy it, be sure and get Virgin olive oil, not Pure: Ed]

“More and more people are recognizing that hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated fats and oils (present in margarine, vegetable shortening, salad oils, and hiding in literally thousands of commercially-processed food products) cannot be efficiently metabolized by the human body and may pose a health hazard. “In the commercially-profitable production of oils, temperatures range from 200 to over 500 F. Enzymes and most natural nutrients are destroyed over 110.

Even the U.S. produced so-called 'cold processed' oils are subjected to tremendous heat generated by the friction of a giant screw-press. Because no external heat is applied, commercial processors can legally label these oils "cold processed," even though the friction produces temperatures of nearly 250 F.

Petroleum based chemicals are commonly used to chemically extract oils, bits of which may remain in the finished product. It goes without saying that these chemically-extracted and/or heat-processed fats and oils do not provide the essential fatty acids. “Cold-Pressed Unrefined Linseed Oil“ It was [with] the landmark publication of Fats & Oils:The Complete Guide to Fats & Oils in Health & Nutrition 10 in the mid-1980s that the work of Dr. Johanna Budwig, Germany’s premiere biochemist, first came to American shores. Unfortunately, this serious book failed to receive the attention it deserved and was largely ignored by the public.

More recently Dr. Budwig’s important findings have been prominently featured in The Handbook of Natural Health, A Through Z 11. Written especially for the lay person, this book documents the connection between artificial dietary fats and ill health and clearly explains how Dr. Budwig’s long years of clinical research established the fact that the body must have the true essential fatty acids in order to function.

“Thirty years ago, working under the auspices of the German government, Dr. Johanna Budwig determined to uncover the causes of the diseases of fatty degeneration. She began at the beginning of known research into the subject by studying the published findings of such greats as von Liebig (1842), Pflueger (1875), Hoppe-Seyler(1876), and Lebedow (1888). In succession, these early scientists showed the important relationship between the essential fatty acids, present in unrefined linseed oil, and the amino acids. What they found was that laboratory animals inevitably died on a high protein diet devoid of fats, and died on a high fat diet devoid of proteins. But when the animals were fed unrefined linseed oil and protein together, they quickly recovered robust health and vitality. “It was at the turn of the century that Rosenfeld proved that a diet which provided only animal fats results in the fatty degeneration of the inner organs. Although the chemical differences between plant and animal fats were unknown back then, the premise of healthy fats(the essential fatty acids present in linseed oil) versus animal fats (now known as saturated fats) was confirmed.“

In 1920, Meyerhof (winner of the Nobel prize for Physiology& Medicine) showed that linoleic acid and sulphurated proteins formed an essential partnership in the internal workings of the body.

In 1931, Warburg proved that the essential fatty acids were required in order for the body to heal itself of the fatty degeneration of cells.

Szent-Gyorgy earned the Nobel prize in 1937 by showing that linoleic acid, in combination with sulphur-rich proteins, stimulated the vital oxygenation processes of the body.

“The medical scientists G.O. Burr and M.M. Burr finally isolated and identified the essential fatty acids. These biochemists showed that lab animals given the highest quality protein feed sicken and die,unless their diet is supplemented with the essential fatty acids. They also proved that the animals would recover rapidly, just as long as the essentials were put back in their diet in time.“

Unfortunately, that was the end of the research into the action of combinations of nutrients for the next fifty years. Dr. Budwig had reached a dead end as far as published research was concerned. During the intervening years, science identified innumerable nutrients which we recognize today as vitamins, minerals, enzymes, hormones,carbohydrates, amino acids, and trace elements. But research into the ways various combinations of nutrients interacted within the body stopped, until Dr. Budwig took up the torch where the others had dropped it so many years before.

Without the need to repeat the work of her predecessors by experimenting with lab animals, Dr. Budwig set herself a Herculean task. She began collecting blood samples from many thousands of people. She took blood from those in the prime of health, as well as from those in the various stages of disease, including terminal cancer patients. Out of this meticulous research, a clear pattern took shape. Dr. Budwig discovered that, without exception, the blood of unhealthy persons always exhibited very low levels of linoleic acid.

She found other blood constituent abnormalities as well. Sick people lacked the phosphatides needed for normal cell division. Because cancer is a condition where abnormal cells proliferate and grow wild, the implication of this discovery alone was enormous. Dr. Budwig also discovered that the blood of diseased persons lacked albumin, an important blood-producing lipoprotein. Albumin is a marriage of linoleic acid and sulphur-based proteins. Without this vital combination of the essential fatty acids and sulphurated proteins, blood analysis showed an unhealthy greenish-yellow substance in place of the red oxygen-carrying hemoglobin present in healthy blood. Without linoleic acid, the blood-producing mechanisms of the body can’t manufacture hemoglobin. Without hemoglobin, cells and tissues become starved for oxygen.“From Theory to Solution“All that painstaking research led Dr. Budwig to one inescapable conclusion. She theorized that supplying the essential fatty acids in combination with sulphurated proteins could restore health.

Could it really be that simple? She was on sound ground in selecting crude unrefined linseed oil as the richest source known of the essential fatty acids. Years of prior research by earlier scientists had already established that fact.“She began clinical trials by feeding seriously ill cancer patients unrefined linseed oil paired with the sulphurated proteins present in cottage cheese. As weeks of this simple nutritional treatment progressed into three months duration, blood analysis showed that the phosphatides and lipoproteins previously missing began to reappear. Healthy red blood cells began taking the place of the unhealthy greenish-yellow constituents which had been there at the beginning of the trials. More importantly, malignant tumors gradually receded and shrank. Seriously weakened and debilitated cancer patients were no longer anemic and weak, but had been transformed into convalescents on their way to full health.“Dr. Johanna Budwig had achieved an incredible breakthrough. Along the way, she had documented the dangerous effects of chemically-altered dietary fats and had also proven the life-preserving and restorative properties of the essential fatty acids mated with sulphur-rich proteins.

In more than a decade of clinical use, Dr. Johanna Budwig has shown that unrefined linseed oil is wonder worker of heroic proportions.“Linseed Oil in Research“As the news of Dr. Budwig’s nutritional crusade filtered out,scientists all over the world climbed on the bandwagon. Because unrefined linseed oil supplies such a rich concentration of the essential fatty acids, this golden oil is universally selected for research purposes in order to demonstrate the properties and benefits of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids. Today, the essentiality of linoleic and linolenic acid in human nutrition has been confirmed in any number of scientific studies.“British scientists have shown that the addition of linseed oil to the diet insures that lipids (fats) are efficiently metabolized. Even when fed a grossly high-fat feed, sheep protected by linseed oil failed to evidence the harmful substances commonly present when fats can’t be metabolized by the body.“Polish researchers have reported that replacing the saturated fats in the diet with essential linoleic acid provides strong protection against heart disease. The anti-clotting and cholesterol-lowering effects of these essential fatty acids were clearly demonstrated in this study.“This effect was confirmed by researchers in Patna, India. Animals given linseed oil were free of cholesterol and Atherosclerotic plague, but the control group on polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a significant number of atherosclerotic lesions. The Indian study concluded that the properties of linseed oil were far superior to the polyunsaturated fats.“Australian medical researchers determined that diets rich in linoleic acid reduce high blood pressure. Although most authorities recommend a diet containing less than 20% fat, animals on a 40%diet of the essential fatty acids showed lower blood pressure than animals on a standard diet. The scientists theorized that this effect was the result of improved prostaglandin synthesis, a known effect of linseed oil.“The best news of all, confirmed by Dr. Johanna Budwig as well as a number of eminent scientists, is the way linseed oil works against cancer. Polish research shows that the fatty acids in linseed oil destroy cancer cells without harming the important white blood cells of the immune system. A three-year study underway in Austria confirms that linseed oil inhibits the proliferation of malignant cells. The Austrian medical scientists are calling linseed oil 'a glimmer of hope in the fight against cancer.'"“Word of Caution“According to all the evidence, dietary linseed oil can rightly be classified as health-promoting, even important, preventive nutrition. However, it would be extremely unwise to self-diagnose and self-administer linseed oil as a substitute for informed medical care.For example, Dr. Budwig’s nutritional treatments were based on exhaustive blood analyses and were individually tailored to the condition of her patients.“Another important fact to remember is that all the scientific research extant which shows the essentiality of linoleic and linolenic fatty acids is based on true cold-pressed and unrefined virgin linseed oil, which is not correctly produced in this country. These delicate seeds require a tender loving care if the end product is to contain the essential fatty acids and all beneficial properties. Ideally, the seeds themselves must be organically grown and free of any taint of agricultural chemicals. Producing a true unrefined virgin linseed oil is just not cost effective for mass merchandisers. The quality of linseed oil is adversely affected by light, heat, and exposure to air, making mass production of a high quality oil economically unattractive.“Fortunately, there are imported linseed oils available in the U.S. which meet or exceed all the above criteria. Our European and Canadian cousins have been enjoying this golden dietary delight for a long time now.”Gus Prosch, Jr., M.D. has long advocated certain nutritional patterns for good health, and one such is hereby presented. He says that the Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) are found in both the Omega-3 and the Omega-6 series. The chart that follows shows therefore a division between the two Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) such that good products and good results are shown by a square and bad products and bad results are shown by a circle.In the Omega 3 series, a primary source for Alpha Linolenic Acid (ALA) is Linseed (or Flax Oil), Walnuts and Beans, Whole Grains, Chestnuts or Soybeans, and Pumpkin Seeds. These all produce in turn the beneficial substances titled A-Linolenic Acid(ALA), Linolenenic Acid (LLA), A-Arachidonic Acid (AAA),Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Prostaglandin III Series. This sequence results in production of: potent anti-clotting; tumor growth inhibitors; decreased blood pressure;decreased triglycerides; decreased cholesterol. They also keep clean arteries; convert energy for the brain; eyesight energy is converted;decrease fatty degeneration; and decrease risk of diabetes complications. Sources of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) are Cold Water Ocean Fish: Sardines,Salmon, Mackerel, Cod, Halibut, Herring, Trout and Tuna. Eating these results in obtaining the beneficial and various long-chain fatty acids, some of which become Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA). The Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)results in Prostaglandin IV Series which has the beneficial effects of providing: potent anti-clotting; decrease in triglycerides; decrease in cholesterol; clean arteries; lowered blood pressure and slower tumor growth. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) can be converted to Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA). This conversion is helped by VitaminB6and magnesium, and is inhibited if one has diabetes.In the Omega-6 series, three interacting chains are shown. The following are known sources of Gamma -Linolenic Acid (GLA):mother’s milk, Evening Primrose seeds, Black Currant seeds, and Borage seeds. They result in the beneficial production of Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA) which results in Dihomo Gamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA) that results in the Prostaglandin I Series which has the following good effects: Is anti-inflammatory; decreases appetite cravings and fat; stimulates brown fat; prevents cancer growth;stimulates immune system; decreases blood platelet stickiness;decreases cholesterol; dilates blood vessels and bronchi; increases cyclic AMP; regulates calcium movement; increases lymphocytes;stimulates thymus; strengthens heart, and releases neurotransmitters. Brown fat, as opposed to white or yellow fat, contains mitochondria which, when stimulated, has the function of burning up white or yellow fat. Bears turn on brown fat during hibernation,thus permitting them to survive without additional food. Babies have a proportionately larger amount of brown fat, for obvious reasons. White fat is chiefly an insulating layer that stores excess calories. Brown fat burns excess calories providing us with heat. Dr. Prosch feels that there are probably more fat youngsters today, because of the widespread use of hydrogenated oils. These oils tend to block brown fat from functioning properly. Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA) stimulates or turns on brown fat. This factor plays a large part in obesity: too much hydrogenated oils, not enough Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA).Certain factors and vitamins stimulate the production of Prostaglandin I. These include: Vitamins C, E, B3, B6, Zinc, Calcium,Biotin and Melatonin. On the other hand, various agents act to prevent the production of Prostaglandin I. These include: aspirin (ASA),steroids, lithium, hydrogenated oils, food additives, NSAIDS, ALA,EPA & DHA (by feedback mechanisms) and caffeine. According to JAMA12 two articles clearly illustrate that a very small amount of aspirin may be helpful for atherogenesis, but more is an inhibitor of Prostacyclin. These are “Multicenter Study Indicates One Aspirin Can Do the Job of Four in Preventing Stroke"; and “Why a Little Aspirin is Better Than a Lot.” Apparently about 325 mg of aspirin will help to prevent myocardial infarction, but that more will not do the job. If arthritics can be satisfied with one ordinary tablet of325 mg. per day, (5 grains), then they probably don’t have arthritis in the first place, and they certainly then have no need to take handfuls of aspirin, as higher dosages will inhibit the good Prostacyclin as well as both Thromboxane A2and Leukotrienes, bad guys.As Gus J. Prosch, Jr., M.D.13said, “If you can get by with a baby aspirin a day, you’ll be all right, you’ll not restrict the prostacyclin!”The main sources of Linoleic Acid (LA) are most cooking oils,Linseed oil, Safflower oil, Cottonseed oil, Sunflower oil, Peanut Oil,and Corn Oil. These result in beneficial Linoleic Acid (LA) that helps produce Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA) and Energy (stored fat)Olive Oil provides chiefly Oleic Acid (Omega-9) which has other good effects. (Diabetics also see Garg, et. al. NEJM, Vol. 319, No. 13,p. 829-834 “Comparison of High-Carbohydrate Diet with A High-Monosaturated Fat Diet in Patients with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus,” by Garg, et. al. and Vol. 319, No. 13, p. 862-864,“Dietary Therapy for Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus,”Gerald Reaven).Note that Linoleic Acid (LA) can be converted to Gamma-linolenic Acid (GLA). This conversion is helped by: antioxidants,magnesium, insulin, Vitamin C, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B6, exercise and folic acid. However this conversion is prevented or slowed down by: hydrogenated oils, trans-fatty acids, high cholesterol, saturated fats, margarines, virus infections, carcinogens, radiation, glucagon,and advanced aging.Of all those listed that will slow down conversion to Gamma-linolenic Acid (GLA), by far the most important is that of hydrogenated oils, Dr. Prosch says. Hydrogenated oils are killers — exceedingly dangerous to health over a period of years, and especially the way we use them, in almost everything on the market today. Trans-Fatty Acids, Vitamin B6, Zinc and Hydrogenated Oil encourages the body to create Arachidonic Acid (AA) from Dihomo Gamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA); and Olive Oil, Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), A-Linolenic Acid (ALA), and Vitamin A block the body from producing Arachidonic Acid (AA) from Dihomo Gamma Linolenic Acid (DGLA).Primary sources of Arachidonic Acid (AA) are Red Meats, Dairy Products and Shellfish, which produce mixed blessings, as follows:Various fatty acids, convert to energy (stored fat) and also into Arachidonic Acid (AA); Arachidonic Acid (AA) produces the Prostaglandin II series, which has mixed blessings, resulting in beneficial Prostacyclin, Thromboxane A2which is non-beneficial,and Leukotrienes which are non-beneficial.The beneficial Prostacyclin has the good effect of producing:vaso-dilation; decrease in platelet stickiness; decrease in stomach acid;and prevention of the spread of cancer. Thromboxane A2creates vasoconstriction; platelet stickiness;increase in cyclic GMP and stimulation of tumor growth.The Leukotrienes have the non-beneficial effects of: pro-inflammation; constricted bronchioles; increased mucous in bronchi; and constricted heart blood vessels.The most potent vasodilator and agent that prevents platelet stickiness is Prostacyclin, Dr. Prosch says. Dr. Prosch also predicts that eventually studies using aspirin for heart patients will fail, because aspirin inhibits all three elements: Prostacyclin (good guy), Throm-boxane A2(bad guy), and Leukotrienes (bad guy). In other words,in trying to use aspirin to rid the patient of the effect of surplus “bad guys” (Thromboxane A2and Leukotrienes) they will also be ridding the patient of a major and important “good guy” (Prostacyclin).There are conflicting studies on this question, and one that seems to show contrary to Prosch’s statement, to some extent, is JAMA“Why a Little Aspirin is Better Than a Lot”5which claims to have shown that 325 mg of aspirin produces Thromboxane A2inhibition but doe snot inhibit the production of Prostacyclin within 24 hours. From these studies it is OK to take one 5 grain aspirin tablet a day, but not to take the large aspirin or more than one large aspirin day after day;but Dr. Prosch does not recommend more than about 2 grains per day,the size of a baby aspirin.The conversion of red meats into Arachidonic Acid (AA) seems to be inhibited or slowed down by Imidazole compounds. (The Rheumatoid Disease Foundation’s medical treatment protocol,among other medicines, recommends any one of five different 5-nitroimidazoles. See http://www.arthritistrust.org). The production of Prostacyclin is helped by: Vitamin E, Selenium, and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and is prevented by peroxide, fats, nicotine, and heavymetals. Warren M. Levin, M.D.16 points to a serious consideration on both using proper essential fatty acids, and also when making“objective” scientific studies on their effects in mammals and humans:“What I believe has been ignored in the vast majority of these clinical studies (that will ultimately require that they all be done over again!)is the relationship of unprotected polyunsaturated fatty acids to lipidperoxidation and free-radical generation. The subsequent pathology wreaked by these avoidable by-products of increased polyunsaturated intake results in multiple clinical pathological expressions of degenerative disease.“Certainly in the past 25 years or so, the intake of the Omega 6family has increased dramatically, but much of it has been in the form of hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated materials which at best eliminates their biochemical role and frequently results in formation of trans-isomers, which literally ‘gums up the works’. In addition, soy oil had been virtually the sole source of Omega 3 fatty acids in the United States. Now, the majority of that has been hydrogenated, resulting in a major epidemic of relative Omega 3 fatty acid deficiency. . . making it the most common nutrient deficiency in the U.S. today, with protean, unpredictable symptomatology.“The addition of these critically important substances during clinical trials must be accompanied by mega-doses of antioxidants or the toxic effects of free-radical damage will overshadow the benefits!These effects will be more noticeable more quickly, in the very patients who need them the most, because diabetics and patients with arteriosclerotic disease and arthritis are already suffering the damage of advanced free-radical destruction, which will be com-pounded by additional unprotected polyunsaturates. . . . The protective effect of large doses of vitamin E is now understandable. The vitamin C question is no longer a question. Selenium, zinc, sulfur and B-complex deficiency cannot be ignored. All of these substances are critical to the proper function of the exquisite antioxidant cascade and all of them, and others, must be included in future experimenta lprotocols if we are ever to determine the true effect of restoring a proper balance of essential fatty acids to the complex human body.”The two simplified charts in this article were prepared by Gus Prosch, M.D. so that you can more easily understand the relationship of essential fatty acids to a good diet. At one time I had to take The Rheumatoid Disease Foundation’s recommended oral medicines every two to three months, suffering either a major or minor Herxheimer at the start of treatment for a brief period each time, and then feeling great againin a day or so. (See http://arthritistrust.org. Initial applications usuallylast six weeks or longer.) Eventually I paid attention to the nutritional guidelines laid downby our Medical Committee and also described by Dr. Prosch 4. I no longer had to take the recommended medicines to halt the progress ofRheumatoid Disease, but I was left with various joint pain andinflammations as a result of the damage that had already been done tomy system. Intraneural injections helped immensely, as per ourtreatment recommendations, as did better diet, life-style and use ofProliferative Therapy 4. (See http://arthritistrust.org.) I have been forseveral years unblessed with too much inflammation of a non-Rheumatoid variety until recently.I had been taking a “cold pressed” linseed oil of a common brandat our local supermarket “health food section” and even from our city’swell known and only health food store.I took the linseed oil for two years — one or two tablespoons perday — as a matter of faith rather than a matter of actually notingdecrease in inflammatory pain.On reading Mike Minarsich’s9article, quoted above, I called thetelephone number [1-800-624-7114] given and requested informa-tion. From the information I subsequently ordered several varietiesof what was claimed to be genuinely “cold-pressed oils”.I was ready to try. Minarsich’s description of the physics ofproducing “cold-pressed” oils sounded reasonable.I ordered Linseed Oil, Pumpkin Oil, Sunflower Oil, and CanolaOil.The expense was considerably more than the Sunflower Oil andLinseed Oil I was used to purchasing, and certainly more costly thanI could afford for cooking. I used a reasonable amount of Linseed Oilfor salads, but I used considerably more Sunflower Oil for othercooking and for making popcorn.Some folks love the taste of these “gourmet” oils, but not me.Taste, of course, is acquired, a conditioning process from childhood.Linseed Oil I didn’t mind so very much and so I decided to tryit as I might medicine, with a tablespoonful or so per day. The others,that I didn’t like, I would use on my salad until gone.Most importantly, I was pleasantly surprised to find that atablespoonful of this new Linseed Oil per day kept the inflammatorypain away. Now the root of the lasting non-Rheumatoid pain hadbeen revealed: lack of a sufficient amount of essential fatty acids!Reduction of pain had never happened with the cheaper “cold-pressed” oil purchased at the supermarket or health food store!The Rheumatoid Disease Foundation is not in the business ofrecommending one brand versus another. We cannot guarantee thatone medicine or food will work for an individual, as every personis genetically different and has different needs. We can and do suggestthat you try one thing or another — usually with your physician— to bring about wellness. And simply trying this new form ofLinseed Oil in moderate amounts will be inexpensive. If it works, fine,if not, then don’t buy any more. You will have learned! If it does work,and you can find a cheaper source that also works, please let us know,and we’ll pass along the word.What follows is taken from a Bio SanTMflier sent to me by NewDimensions of Fountain Hills, Arizona 85268, [1-800-624-7114].“C-Leinosan Linseed Oil: [Is] true cold-pressed, raw,unrefined extra-virgin linseed oil from the first pressing of the seeds.“Linseed oil is acknowledged to be the world’s most abundantsource of essential fatty acids (linoleic/linolenic), which haveunfortunately been processed out of U.S. foods. The body cannotsynthesize these protective and therapeutic fatty acids from anyother nutrient or combination of nutrients, yet the essentials arerequired every day by many internal systems for healthy normalfunctioning. A daily measure of cold-pressed virgin unrefined linseedoil insures that the body is plentifully provided with the essential fattyacids.“C-Leinosan Linseed OilRepresentative Fatty Acid AnalysisLinolenic Acid62.59%Linoleic Acid14.52%Oleic Acid15.18%Palmitic Acid5.22%Stearic Acid2.49%“Remember, the body attempts to compensate for a fatty aciddeficiency, sometimes for many years. When a serious illness strikes,a nutrient deficiency is seldom pinpointed. Lack of the essential fattyacids leads to the diseases of fatty degeneration, including cancer andheart disease. C-leinosan (Linseed Oil) supplies the basic veryessential linoleic and linolenic fatty acids every hungry cell in the bodyneeds.“Because linseed oil offers the richest concentration of linoleicand linolenic acids in nature, scientists around the world select this oilas the medium of choice for determining the properties and benefits ofthe fatty acids. Studies show dramatically that linseed oil can beconsidered a proven preventive and an active therapeutic.“Metabolic Function: When fed a grossly high-fat diet,subjects protected by linseed oil were free of the harmful elementspresent in the blood when fats can’t be processed by the body. (Britain)“Heart Disease:Replacing saturated fats in the diet with essentiallinoleic acid offers strong protection against heart disease. The anti-clotting and cholesterol lowering effects of linoleic acid weredemonstrated in a landmark study. (Poland)“High Blood Pressure: Hypertension was reduced in subjectssupplied with essential fatty acids regularly, the effect of the improvedprostaglandin synthesis stimulated by linoleic acid (Australia)“Staph Infections: Linseed oil works against staph bacteriaresistant to antibiotics, a problem in many hospitals. It was concludedthat dietary linseed oil should prove a useful treatment for staphinfections, especially for weakened patients. (Australia)“Cancer: The fatty acids in linseed oil destroy cancer cellswithout harming the white blood cells of the immune system. (Poland)

Calling Linseed oil “a glimmer of hope in the fight against cancer,”a three-year study shows linseed oil inhibits the profliferation ofmalignant cells. (Austria)“Broad Spectrum:Dr. Johanna Budwig (Germany) proved thatthe blood of diseased persons exhibits very low levels of linoleic acid.Healthy blood contains the essential fatty acids and quality protein.Diseased blood does not. Without the vital combination of theessential fatty acids and sulphurated proteins, the production ofhemoglobin (oxygen-carrying red blood cells), is impaired. Cells andtissues suffer the results of hypoxemia (oxygen-starvation).“In over a decade of clinical application, the dietary therapy(linseed oil paired with protein-rich low-fat cottage cheese) -- usedso successfully by Dr. Budwig against the diseases of fattydegeneration (cancer, heart disease) has brought her internationalfame as a healer of heroic proportions.”[Note: Sources of studies cited: The Fatty Acid Syndrome (Dr.Budwig), Fats & Oils(U. Erasmus), How to Fight Cancer & Win (W.Fischer), Extend Your Life (H. Hunter).]BioSan oils are claimed “to be produced under rigid qualitycontrol procedures to preserve and protect flavor, nutrient value, andbeneficial properties. They are warranted strictly cold-pressed in smallbatches at 300C, resulting in fully biologically-active oils.“Because the quality of seed oils are adversely affected by light,heat, and exposure to air, the BioSan oils are processed in darknessusing special infrared lighting. Production and packaging arecompleted in “clean rooms” of the highest pharmaceutical standards.The oils are decanted into sterilized impermeable amber glass, notplastic.“Pumpkin Seed Oil:Pumpkin seeds are an excellent source ofboth essential fatty acids, second only in richness to linseed (flax) oil.This oil supplies 43% linoleic acid; 16% linolenic acid.“Canola Oil: This oil has 21% linoleic acid and 12% linolenicacid, and is darker in color than the refined product.“Sunflower Oil:This oil contains natural vitamin E plus 60 to73% linoleic acid and 0.2 to 2% linolenic acid. It has essentially thesame flavor as sunflower seeds, contrary to the refined product.“Safflower Oil: This oil is 74% linoleic acid and 0.5% linolenicacid.“Basic Nutrition:To supply your body with the essential fattyacids every day, take 1 to 2 tablespoons Linseed Oil with 1/4 to1/2 cup low-fat cottage cheese. Mix them together, or take a spoonfulof this liquid and eat the cottage cheese. You may enhance the cottagecheese with flavorings of your choice, if you prefer.“Muesli: In a blender, whirl 1/2 cup low-fat cottage cheese,3 to 5 tablespoons Linseed Oil (Or Pumpkin Seed Oil), 1 grated apple,a handful of chopped almonds (or hazelnuts). Add a dollop of honey,if you like. Serves two people. This is Dr. Johanna Budwig’s personalrecipe, as featured in her books Cancer — A Fatty Acid Problem andThe Oil-Protein Diet for Cancer Patients.“Baking You may use these oils of your choice in baking becausethe moisture in the batter prevents the dispersed oils from exceedinghealthy temperatures in the oven.“Saute' & Stir-Fry:To gently saute' or quickly stir-fry, preheatpan (not aluminum) on low to medium heat. Add equal parts of waterand the oils of your choice. The water will prevent the oil fromexceeding safe temperatures. (If the mixture boils and “spits”, thepan is too hot.) Add ingredients for saute or stir-fry and cook as usual.”New Dimensions suggests: There should be no differencebetween flax oil and linseed oil, but some dealers will sell “flax oil”that is neither linseed or flax oil.While linseed oil has been and is still used for paints, it is theprocessing and the leads placed in the paint linseed oil that makesit unfit for human consumption.There are no good plastic containers for holding these oils andmaintaining their quality. Insist on opaqued glass bottles.In a later BioSan pamphlet is the following:“Where We Went Wrong- Modern methods have made theproduction of fats and oils cost-effective. Cooking the seeds,crushing them mechanically, and then running the resulting mashthrough a giant press, or passing it through a chemical solvent, extractsevery drop. The fact that these harsh manufacturing procedureschemically alter molecular structure is ignored.“In the refining process, caustic chemicals remove importantfree fatty acids, phospholipids, carotenoids and natural antioxidants.The oil is then chemically bleached, deodorized and ‘winterized.’Chemical antioxidants, stabilizers and preservatives are added. Butthere’s worse to come.Hydrogenated Oils - Hydrogenation saturates all fatty acidswith hydrogen. Using a metal catalyst, tremendous pressure is appliedat temperatures exceeding 4000F. for up to 8 hours. Because the finalproduct is inert (dead), it doesn’t spoil. But it contains chemically-altered bits of fatty acids, which the body doesn’t know how to handle,and traces of metal catalysts.“Partial Hydrogenation - A liquid oil is made solid or semi-solid by adjusting the length of the process. Margarine and shorteningare partially hydrogenated. Partial hydrogenation is worse than fullhydrogenation. Here’s why:“Molecules become hydrogenated erratically, leaving behinddangerously altered substances when the process is halted. Many areharmful.“Why You Should be Concerned - Over half (57%) of ourdietary fat comes from processed fats and oils. It has been establishedthat these alien fats do not provide the Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)the body requires every day, and we know they cannot be efficientlymetabolized by the body.”I haven’t seen the study that produced the 57% figure quotedabove, but I’d wager that far, far more than 57% of our dietary fat comesfrom processed fats and oils!Ray Peat, Ph.D. in Townsend Letters for Doctors, February/March 1989, in a letter, warns folks against taking Linseed Oils in theamounts advocated by Udo Erasmus in Fats and Oils.Peat says that large quantities of such oils are known to cause:impaired brain development and learning; damage to skin and bones;accelerated aging and age-pigment accumulation; damage to thecirculatory system; increased cancer incidence; suppressedimmunity; and endocrine dysfunction.I suspect that differences lie in how deficient each person isin essential fatty acids and also in how well they absorb and utilizethem. A doctor who gives three to six capsules of Oil of EveningPrimrose to arthritics is undoubtedly doing the correct thing, but thereare probably many arthritics or former arthritics, like myself, andcancer victims, whose tissues have become so starved for essentialfatty acids that Udo Erasmus’ quantities are easily and safely taken.Evidence also seems to exist that men need more of certainEssential Fatty Acids (EFA) than do women.I suspect, too, that we of the World War II vintage, and after,belong to a special class of humans wrongly sold on margarines andother so-called polyunsaturates for all our “health” needs.Some folks unquestionably get by on just a good diet, containingthe right fatty acids, or ingredients convertible to them. A few smallcapsules per day of the right oils may suffice for others. Arthritics —I am beginning to believe -- and this needs verification by lots ofpatients — probably require larger quantities of essential fatty acids,in the tablespoons per day range.

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8Medical data is for informational purposes only. You should always consult your family physician, or one of our referral physicians prior to treatment.Olive OilEPAALAVitamin AAntioxidantsMagnesiumInsulinVitamin CVitamin B3Vitamin B6ExerciseFolic AcidHydrogenated OilsTrans Fatty acidsHigh cholesterolSaturated fatsMargarinesVirus infectionsCarcinogensRadiationGlucagenAdvanced AgingTrans FattyAcidsVitamin B6ZincHydrogenatedOilENERGY -- STOREDFATEncourages bodyto create AA fromDGLAGAMMA LINOLENIC ACID (GLA)LINOLEIC ACID (LA)VARIOUSFATTY ACIDSVARIOUS LONG CHAIN FATTY ACIDSOMEGA3SERIESEFAOMEGA6SERIESEFA...§§§§§Blocks body from producingAA from DGLALINOLENIC ACID (LNA)§A-LINOLENIC ACID (ALA)§Known sources ofgamma linolenic acid[GLA}Mother's MilkEvening Primrose SeedsBlack Currant SeedsBorage SeedsMain sources oflinoleic acid [LA]Most Cooking OilsLinseed or Flax OilSafflower OilCottonseed OilSunflower OilPeanut OilOlive OilCorn OilPrimary sources ofarachidonic acid [AA]Red MeatsDairy ProductsShellfishPrimary sources of[ALA] AlphaLinolenic AcidLinseed or Flax OilWalnuts and BeansWhole GrainsChestnuts or SoybeansPumpkin SeedsARACHIDONIC ACID (AA)DIHOMO GAMMA LINOLENIC ACID (DGLA)§? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?>>A??>><>>A>?AImidazoleCompoundsInhibitESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS (EFA)BIOCHEMISTRY -- METABOLISM --PROSTAGLANDINSPublished by The Arthritis Trust of America/Rheumatoid Disease Foundation7376 Walker Road, Fairview, TN 37062-8141Copyright 1989, Supplement to The Art of Getting Well>A-ARACHIDONIC ACID (AAA)§Primary sources ofEicosapentaeoic Acid andDocosahexanoic Acid(EPA) and (DHA)Cold Water Ocean FishSardines, SalmonMackerel, Cod, Halibut,Herring, Trout, Tuna

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9Medical data is for informational purposes only. You should always consult your family physician, or one of our referral physicians prior to treatment.§This Chart Created byGus J. Prosch, Jr., M.D.Anti-inflammatory< Appetite cravings & fatStimulates brown fatPrevents cancer growthImmune stimulant< Platelet stickinessCholesterol decreasesB. Vessel & bronchial dilateCyclic AMP increasesRegulates Calcium movementLymphocytes increaseThymus stimulatedStrengthens heartReleases neurotransmittersVasodilator §< Platelet stickiness §< Stomach acid §Prevents cancer spread §Vasoconstriction •> Platelet stickiness •Cyclic GMP increases •Stimulates tumor growth •Very pro-inflammatory •Constricts bronchioles •> Mucous in bronchi •Constricts heart BloodVessels •Potent anti-clottingInhibits tumor growth< Blood pressure< Triglycerides< CholesterolKeeps arteries cleanConverts energy in brainConverts eyesight energy< Fatty degeneration< Diabetes complicationsPotent anti-clotting< Triglycerides< CholesterolKeeps arteries cleanLowers blood pressureSlows tumor growthPROSTACYCLIN §Vit. E., Selenium,EPA §Peroxide, Fats, Nicotine,Heavy MetalsTHROMBOXANE A2Inositol, VasopressinPGE-1, EPA, Bromalin,Vit.. E, Garlic, NSAIDS*,ALA §LEUKOTRIENESLipoxygenasePGE 1, EPA,DGLA, Vit. E §? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?.PGE I>§....PROSTAGLANDIN I SERIES§>.<><><§§>PROSTAGLANDIN IV SERIES§>DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID (DHA)§>PROSTAGLANDIN III SERIES§>DiabetesinhibitsA?AB6, MagnesiumEICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID(EPA)§>.PROSTAGLANDIN II SERIESAspirin and NSAIDs* block Prostacyclin (GoodGuy) andThromboxane A2 and Leukotrienes (Bad Guys).If supplemented with Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) andEicosapenteanoic Acid (EPA), only Thromboxane A2andLeukotrienes are blocked. One tablet of 2 grains, about1/3 of an adult aspirin, or a baby aspirin (100 mg) per dayis safe.§Vitamin C, E, B3, B6, Zinc, Calcium, Biotin, Melatonin>=GOOD=BAD< = decreases> = increases* = NSAIDS (Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs)§ASA, Steroids, Lithium, Hydrogenated Oils, Food Additives, NSAIDS*, ALA, EPA, DHA, Caffeine

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10Medical data is for informational purposes only. You should always consult your family physician, or one of our referral physicians prior to treatment.“Flax seed oil, on the other hand, is the name we give to oil madewith the care required for human health, marketed fresh, refrigerated,and hopefully shipped direct to the retailer or consumer.“I do not recommend any brands of oil called linseed (flax)or flax (linseed). After only 2 years of production, there are alreadyseveral imitations on the market, none of which I recommend. Qualityand greed carry us in different directions.“The flax growers like a distinction to be made between the paint-grade and the human-health product, because they, too, don’t want theconfusion of terms and products.“From the health point of view, I do not recommend any refinedoils (because of destructive processing and removal of nutrients), anynon-organic, unrefined oils (because of pesticide residues), or anyoils packaged in transparent plastic containers. One could hardly callme a friend of the billion-dollar oil industry.“I recommend a total of 15 to 20% of calories from fats in the dietof most people. This is 10% lower than the recommendation ofthe American Heart Association, but in line with traditional diets notleading to cardiovascular disease. If 2% of daily calories were Omega3’s, 4% Omega 6’s (I suggested 3 to 10% in Fats and Oils), 5%mono’s and 5% saturates, they might constitute reasonable ratiosfor health. The body adapts to fluctuations in the ratios. It cannothandle too many saturates or too many Omega 6’s. It needs bothessential fatty acids. A balance is prudent.“Pritikin’s diet, in my opinion, was too low in total fats, toolow in Omega-3’s, and too low in Vitamin E. His diet is useful inthe treatment of obesity and atherosclerosis, under supervision.It fails as a way of life for healthy people.“I strongly disagree with the ‘fat is poison’ sentiment. There istoo much research evidence for the essentiality of fats and of essentialfatty acids in the diet. Too little or too much results in problems.“I agree that an excess of the Omega-6 linoleic acid, especiallyfrom refined oils, fried Omega-6 oils, and Omega-6 containing dietlacking antioxidants leads to health problems. I consider this nowestablished fact important enough to emphasize in every lecture.“Finally, a word about oxidation and anti-oxidants. In the last fewyears, we have given anti-oxidants a lot of deserved attention. In theprocess, however, we have almost forgotten that animal and humanlife depend on oxidation. Oxidation produces energy. Lack ofoxidation results in lowered metabolic rate, lower energy levels, anddegeneration.“The essential fatty acids (especially the Omega 3 essentialfatty acid alpha-linolenic acid) constitute the highest level oxidantsin human nutrition. We require them for oxidation-dependent life.“In the final analysis, the energy which keeps us alive is generatedby a finely regulated balance of oxidation and reduction, by a properbalance of oxidants and anti-oxidants. The fats and oils, in their naturalform, are a necessary part of this balance.”Quoting Dr. Gerson’s Book, A Cancer Therapy, Results in FiftyCases, p. 246, in her letter “Sales Pitch for Linseed Oil,” Lodi, M.D.18states, use “Linseed oil, cold-pressed (food grade), 1 Tablespooneach morning and evening. After 4 weeks reduce to 1 Tablespoon.”I asked Gus Prosch, Jr., M.D. what he recommends for hispatients. He says, “I recommend 240 mg of Gamma Linolenic Acid(GLA) per day, which can be found in either 1 Borage Oil capsule perday or 6 Evening Primrose Oil capsules per day, the quantitydetermined by its source.” [Keep in mind that much that is called"Evening Primrose Oil" or "Borage Oil" sold in America is actuallysoybean oil, or some other wrong ingredient, as there are no labelingstandards established and accepted by the FDA for the names"Evening Primrose Oil" or "Borage Oil." Check with your alternativemedicine physician for a reliable source. Ed.]Dr. Prosch also “. . . recommends 900 to 1,000 mgI take one to two tablespoons of linseed oil daily now, one mixedin cottage cheese (all essential amino acids), the other in the morningbefore eating. I have noted drastic differences in otherwise sustainedinflammatory conditions, and ability to strengthen muscles again, aftera long eight-year siege of weakening them.Six or eight small capsules of expensive Oil of Evening Primrosewould hardly have sufficed, as I have tried that approach over a longperiod, also.But Ray Peat’s claims are so serious, and as the potential benefitsof taking the oils for arthritics and others are so great, that I ampresenting two rebuttals, one by Robert Walberg17, and the otherby Udo Erasmus, Ph.D.17.Robert Walberg says: “Mr. Peat’s article mentions linoleic acidas causing problems ranging from brain impairment to suppressedimmunity. The point Mr. Peat has missed is that Flax oil contains onlysmall amounts of linoleic acid. Flax oil is predominantly linolenicacid,a substance proven to be essential in brain development and learning,slowing aging and age pigment accumulation, repairing damage tothe circulatory system, selectively kills certain cancer cells, increasingimmune response, coincidentally all the things Mr. Peat has claimedcontrary.“It appears Mr. Peat has got linolenic acid (Omega-3) confusedwith linoleic acid (Omega-6). Linoleic acid (common in most oils) isdefinitely involved in promotion of cancer due to lack of productionof cyclooxygenases and increased PGE 2 [Prostaglandins II]production to some extent. Dr. Karmali found the best ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 is one to one for preventing cancer and that Omega-3 works by preventing immunosupppression of cell-mediatedimmunity. Flax oil typically contains 55-60% Omega 3.”Robert Walberg then attaches the following references:“JNIC, Vol. 77, #5, Nov. 1986; Selective Killing of Cancer CellsAJCN, #44, Sept. 1986, page 336-340; Linolenic Acid and BloodPressureNutrition Today, Mar to June 1988, pages 10-19, 12-18.Lancet, Vol. 2, Nov. 7 1964JAOCS, Vol. 6, #4, April 1988, Page 509Prostaglandin Leukotrienes and Medicine, 1985, Pages 177-186SA Medical Journal, Vol. 62, Oct. 1988 page 500 and Oct. 30,1982, page 63.”Udo Erasmus says: “I make a distinction between what I report(from research and clinical findings) and what I recommend (basedon what I understand about health). I have only recommended one oil:fresh flax seed oil(which is high in the Omega-3 alpha linolenic acidand low in Omega-6 linoleic acid).“Made by a company called Omega Nutrition, the flax seed oilthat I have recommended is mechanically pressed from certifiedorganic flax seeds by an especially painstaking light-free, oxygen-free, low-temperature method (OMEGAFLO). The oil is unrefined,packaged in completely opaque containers (to prevent destructionby light), dated with a 4-month shelf life, and shipped refrigerated.“I have recommended this oil because it sets a precedent and anew direction in the manufacture of oils. If human health is reallyour concern, this is how, in my opinion, oils need to be made. In Fatsand Oils, I devoted 2 chapters to making and labeling ‘healthy’ oils.Omega Nutrition exceed all of my specifications. I have no legal orfinancial affiliation with the company, and do not profit from theirsales.“I distinguish between linseed oiland flax seed oil. Linseed oilis the name used in the industry for paint-grade oil, pressed from flaxseeds without the care that human consumption requires. Linseed oilis considered inedible, but finds its way into our food supplynevertheless, both in bottles and in capsules.

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11Medical data is for informational purposes only. You should always consult your family physician, or one of our referral physicians prior to treatment.At Birth You Have a:Healthy HeartHealthy Blood VesselsHealthy Blood PlateletsHealthy Immune SystemHealthy Brown FatTo Age Faster, Get Fat, Have Heart AttacksorStroke, and to Die at an Early Age --1. Don't exercise2. Drink Soda Pop and Diet Drinks3. Get Daily Air, Water, Food Pollution4. Eat the Same Foods Regularly5. Eat Only White Flour Products6. Eat Hydrogenated Oils7. Eat Much Red Meats Regularly8. Eat Lots of Sweets, Sugars, Deserts9. Avoid High Fiber Foods10. Drink Caffeine, Nicotine, and Alcohol11. Avoid Cold Water Fish12. Avoid Fresh Fruits and Vegetables13. Avoid All Complex Carbohydrates14. Avoid Supplements such as Vitamins,Minerals and Fatty AcidsCongratulations!This diet will help you to age faster, becomeobese, have heart attacks and strokes and todie at an early age!So, At Death You Will Have a:Diseased Heart, Diseased Blood VesselsDiseased Platelets, Diseased Immune System& Brown Fat FailsAt Birth You Have a:Healthy HeartHealthy Blood VesselsHealthy Blood PlateletsHealthy Immune SystemHealthy Brown FatTo Age Slowly, Prevent Obesity, PreventHeart Attack or Stroke, and toLive to a Ripe Old Age --1. Exercise Every Day2. Drink Extra Water Daily3. Avoid All Pollution4. Eat A Variety of Foods5. Avoid All White Flour Foods6.Totally Avoid All Hydrogenated Oils7. Limit Red Meat Intake Weekly8. Avoid All Sweets, Sugars, Deserts9. Eat High Fiber Foods Every Day10. Avoid Caffeine, Nicotine, Alcohol11. Eat Cold Water Fish 3 Times Weekly12. Eat Fresh Fruits and Vegetables13. Eat Only Complex Carbohydrates14. Supplement Diet With Vitamins,Minerals and Fatty Acids DailyYou Will Still Die, But, You'll Live LongerWith a Higher Quality of Living!Remember!Your HealthisNowWhat You Have Previously Eaten, and Thought!Created by Gus J. Prosch, Jr., M.D.Published by Rheumatoid Disease Foundation7376 Walker Road, Fairview, TN 37062-8141Copyright 1988, Supplement toThe Art of Getting Well

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12Medical data is for informational purposes only. You should always consult your family physician, or one of our referral physicians prior to treatment.The EssentialFatty Acids and ProstaglandinsEither Cause or Prevent Developmentof Many Chronic Degenerative Diseasesand Other Related IllnessesCauses or Contributes toAcne VulgarisAgeingAlcoholismAllergiesAlzheimers DiseaseArthritis, All TypesAsthmaArteriosclerosis (Heart Attacks, Strokes)Auto-Immune DiseasesCancer, All TypesCandidiasisConstipationCystic Breast DiseaseDepressionDiabetes MellitusDrug DependencyEczema, All typesEpilepsyHeart DiseaseHyperactivityHypercholesterolemia (High Cholesterol)HypertensionImmune SuppressionInfections, All TypesInflammatory DiseasesIntermittent ClaudicationLearning DisabilitiesLupus ErythematosisMental DisordersMultiple SclerosisNeuropathiesObesityParkinsonismPremenstrual SyndromePsoriasisRaynaud's SyndromeSclerodermaSjogrens SyndromeStress ReliefStrokesUrticariaYou See Yourself?Then Take Heed!!Created by Gus J. Prosch, Jr., M.D.Published by Rheumatoid Disease Foundation7376 Walker Road, Fairview, TN 37062-8141Copyright 1988, Supplement to The Art of Getting WellContributes To:Cell Membrane StabilizationHormone ProductionProstaglandins ManufactureCell EnergyMental FunctionsElectric Current Nerve TransmissionsFighting InflammationOxygen & Hemoglobin Transfer to TissuesArteriosclerosis, Heart Attacks, StrokesDigestionImmune SystemBasal Metabolism RateStress ResponseChromosomesFat BreakdownAll Gland SecretionsDysfunction or Lack of Proper Diet CausesCommon Disease Conditions RequiringProper Fatty Acid Balanceto Heal Properly><A??

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13Medical data is for informational purposes only. You should always consult your family physician, or one of our referral physicians prior to treatment.Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) per day and 500 to 600 mg ofDocosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) per day.”The Flaxseed oil that has satisfied me so well is 8.5 ounce bottlesof C-LeinonsanTM from New Dimensions Dist. Inc., 16548 E. LaserDR., A-7, Fountain Hills, AZ 85268.Another source is Spectrum Naturals, 133 Copeland Street,Petaluma, CA 94952. One must be careful when purchasing SpectrumNaturals because many of their products are processed and bottled tocompete with the billion dollar commercial market that is known to bedestructive to health. They have two lines of products, one satisfyingrequirements of good health, and the other heated to 4500F for the massmarket.The kind recommended is found in the refrigerator of health foodstores as Veg-Omega-3TM, also in 8.5 Fluid Oz. bottles.Their advertising states that Veg-Omega-3 is: rich in preciousomega-3s, twice as rich as fish oil, 5 times more stable than fish oil,less expensive by 1/5th-1/12th than fish oil, certified organicallygrown by O.C.I.A., guaranteed free of pesticides and PCBs, com-pletely protected from light and air, free from trans-fatty acids and freeradicals, cold pressed at 960 F, unrefined with natural beta-caroteneintact, unbleached, free of additives, bottled with pressing andexpiration dates on the label, and unconditionally guaranteed to befresh when kept refrigerated and used before expiration date.References1. Endres, et al, “The Effect of Dietary Supplementation withn-3 [Omega 3] Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Synthesis ofInterleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor by Mononuclear Cells” TheNew England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 320, No. 5, Feb. 2, 1989;Kremer JM, Jubiz W, Michalek A., et al, “Fish-oil Fatty AcidSupplementation in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Double-blind,Controlled, Crossover Study,” Ann Intern Med; 106:497-503, 1987;Bittiner SB, Tucker WF, Cartwright I, Bleehen SS, “A Double BlindRandomized, Placebo-controlled Trial of Fish Oil in Psoriasis,”Lancet 1:378-80,1988.2. Orville A. Levander and Arba L. Agar, Jr., “Fish Oil: NewHope in Fighting Malaria.” Science News, April 15, 1989, p. 2373. "Unsaturated Free Fatty Acids Inactivate Animal EnvelopedViruses,"Archives of Virology, Springer-Verlag, 66,301-307, 1980.4. Anthony di Fabio, The Art of Getting Well, The Arthritis Trustof America/The Rheumatoid Disease Foundation, 7376 Walker Road,Fairview, TN 37062-8141; or see Proper Nutrition for RheumatoidArthritis, Ibid; Treatment of First Choice for Osteoarthritis and forOther Arthritic-like Pain: Sclerotherapy, Proliferative Therapy,Reconstructive Therapy, Ibid.5. An Update on Treatments for Hyperlipidemia, Cardio-vascular Research Ltd., 1061 Shary Circle, Concord, CA 94518.6. Franklin H. Epstein, M.D., Editor, “Mechanisms of Disease,”The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 320, No. 14, April 6,1989, pp. 915-924.7. Harvey F. Carroll, Ph.D., “Fish Oil, Fatty acids and HumanHealth” CapsulationsTM, Technical Information for the Practitioner,Number 11, Thorne Research, Inc., 610 Andover Park East, Seattle,WA 98188.8. Wayne Martin, B.S., Letter, Townsend Letter for Doctors,April 1989, p. 168.9. Mike Minarsich, “Cold-Pressed Unrefined Linseed Oil PutsEssential Nutrients Back on the Menu”, Townsend Letter forDoctors, 911 Tyler Street, Port Townsend, WA 98368, December1988, p. 557-559.10.Udo Erasmus, Ph.D., Fats & Oils The Complete Guide toFats & Oils in Health & Nutrition, Alive Publishing, 4728 Byrne Rd.,Burnaby, B.C., Canada V5T 3H7, 1986..11. The Handbook of Natural Health, A Through Z, ALMPublishing, Phoenix, AZ.12. “Multicenter Study Indicates One Aspirin Can Do the Jobof Four in Preventing Stroke"; “Why a Little Aspirin is Better Thana Lot,” JAMA, April 24, 1987, Vol. 257, No. 16, p. 2134-2135.13. Gus J. Prosch, Jr., M.D., personal conversation.14. Garg, et. al., “Comparison of High-Carbohydrate Diet withA High-Monosaturated Fat Diet in Patients with Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus,” Vol. 319, No. 13, p. 862-864; “DietaryTherapy for Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus,” GeraldReaven, NEJM, Vol. 319, No. 13, p. 829-834.15. “Why a Little Aspirin is Better Than a Lot”, JAMA, Vol. 257,No. 16, April 24, 1987.16. Warren M. Levin, M.D., “Unprotected PUFA and LipidPeroxidation," Townsend Letter for Doctors, Op.Cit., June 1989, p.314.17. Robert Walberg, The Townsend Letter for Doctors, Op.Cit.,April 1989, p. 166-167; and the other by Udo Erasmus, Ph.D., alsothe author of the book, Fats and Oils: The Complete Guide to Fatsand Oils in Health and Nutrition, Op.Cit.18. Charlotte Lodi, M.D., Townsend Letter for Doctors, June1989, p. 310.Vitamin FPublished in the Townsend Letter for Doctors, August/ September1994, p. 920, used with permission of author.Sources are given in references.Authors of contributions\quotations are alphabetically arranged;major author, if any, is underlined.Dr. Johanna Budwig, Dr. Christiaan Eijkman, Dr. James Lind/Responsible editor/writer Alfred H. Wertheim.Copyright 1994All rights reserved by the The Roger Wyburn-Mason and Jack M.BlountFoundation for Eradication of Rheumatoid DiseaseAKA The Arthritis Fund AKA The Rheumatoid Disease Foundation7376 Walker Road, Fairview, TN 37062-8141The history of the discovery of vitamins and other nutritionalfactors is not only fascinating, but it is also very dramatic. For example,the story of vitamin B1goes back to 1897 when Dr. Christiaan Eijkman,a Dutch physician working in Java, observed pigeons hobbling aroundthe hospital courtyard. These birds demonstrated a crippled gait similarto that of the sick inmates. Dr. Eijkman knew that the pigeons wereeating the hospital table scraps, and he surmised that it was the polishedrice that was causing the terrible disease called beriberi, in both thepatients and the pigeons. When unrefined rice was fed to the pigeons,they became well again. Eventually the experiment resulted in thediscovery of vitamin B1, a starting point in the science of nutrition.From the 14th to the 19th century scurvy took the lives of millionsannually in Europe and Asia. From 1600 to 1800 it is estimated thatfully a million English sailors succumbed to this disease. In 1747 JamesLind, a medical officer of the British navy aboard H.M.S. Salisbury,made a trial of a half dozen popularly recommended treatments. Oneof them consisted of two oranges and one lemon per day. Of the varioustreatments tried, only the citrus fruits worked, and some of the sailorseating them recovered in as little as six days.Dr. Lind, like many other researchers, did not live to see hisdiscovery given general acceptance. He died in 1794, and in thefollowing year the British Admiralty made provisions for a daily rationof lime or lemon juice to be given all sailors in the navy, and inconsequence, even to this day, the sailors of the British navy are dubbed"limeys". During the time between Dr. Lind's discovery and itspractical applications in 1795, nearly 200,000 British sailors diedneedlessly of scurvy. (Vitamin C was discovered and isolated in 1928.)Essential unsaturated fatty acids have never been recognized asa vitamin although some in the health field have referred to them as "vitamin F".An essential fatty acid may be defined as a fatty acid that is requiredfor normal health and growth, is manufactured in the body in insuffi-cient quantities or not at all, and must therefore be supplied by foodsources. There has been some controversy about the number ofessential fatty acids, with a maximum of three being mentioned: linoleicacid (LA), linolenic acid (LNA), and arachidonic acid (AA).Linoleic acid cannot be produced by the body at all. Linolenic andarachidonic acids can be manufactured under certain conditions, forexample with sufficient availability of linoleic acid and the presence ofcertain vitamins and minerals. Most researchers today consider onlylinoleic and linolenic acids to be essential fatty acids.It must be noted that there are numerous fatty acids found in foodthat are of varying degrees of biological importance. Traces of no lessthan 500 have been identified in butter.There are two main classes of fatty acids: saturated and unsatur-ated. Hard fats contain mostly saturated fatty acids, while liquid oilsare made up predominantly of unsaturated fatty acids. The unsaturatedmolecule has an "opening" into which an oxygen atom may enter. Whenthis happens, the fat or oil becomes rancid. This "opening" may be"closed" artificially by forcing in an atom of hydrogen in a processcalled hydrogenation. This helps to prevent rancidity and also causesthe oil to become "hardened".Unsaturated fatty acids are often categorized as Omega 3, Omega6 and Omega 9 fatty acids. Table 2 summarizes this information andalso lists some of the principal food sources for each. Table 1 listsexamples of saturated fatty acids (all non-essential, i.e., they can bemade by the body if required), non-essential unsaturated fatty acids,and essential unsaturated fatty acids [there are only two -- LA (linoleicacid) and LNA (linolenic acid)].The essential fatty acids are involved with the production of lifeenergy in the body from food substances. They govern growth, vitalityand mental state. They form a structural part of all cell membranes, andthey have a part in maintaining the fluidity of membranes, which whenstimulated, can generate bioelectric currents which travel along the cellsto other cells, transmitting messages.Essential fatty acids are the precursors of the prostaglandins,hormone-like substances which regulate many functions of all tissueson a moment to moment basis, including blood pressure, plateletstickiness, and smooth muscle contraction.Essential fatty acids are involved in the transport of excesscholesterol, and they help keep the body depot fats fluid.They are involved in generating the electrical currents that makethe heart beat in orderly sequence.They appear to regulate chromosome stability, and may havefunctions in the starting and stopping of gene expression. They helpgovern the movement of chromosomes during cell division and theyare required in the formation of the new cell membranes which separatethe two daughter cells after a cell has divided.Essential fatty acids are involved in the function of the immunesystem, which acts to fight infections and confers resistance to diseaseand allergies.In short, life without essential fatty acids is impossible and whenessential fatty acids are deficient, we can expect a diversity of healthproblems.As shown in Tables 2 and 3, the best sources of linolenic acid areflax seeds, pumpkin seeds, walnuts, soy beans and dark green leaves.The best sources of linoleic acid are safflower, sunflower, and insesame seeds, wheat germ and corn germ oil and walnuts.Since the essential fatty acids are easily destroyed by light, air andheat, great care is required in processing, packaging and storing of theoils containing them. Unfortunately, the processes used commerciallyare designed to produce oils that are light, clear, tasteless and everlast-ing. The seeds are crushed and then cooked for up to two hours atvarying temperatures. When they are pressed, the pressure that iscreated causes the seed mass to be heated further. The higher thetemperature and pressure, the better is the oil yield.Some oils are extracted, using a solvent such as hexane.The next step is degumming which removes phospholipids,including lecithin.Next, free fatty acids are removed, using caustic soda (Draino®).Bleaching then removes the pigments chlorophyll and beta-carotene.Deodorization removes aromatic oils and more free fatty acids,as well as pungent odors and unpleasant tastes, which were not presentin the natural oil in the seeds before the processing began. Deodoriza-tion takes place at between 460 and 520 degrees Fahrenheit.The next step may be hydrogenation or partial hydrogenation.One of the best ways to ruin the nutritional value of an oil is tohydrogenate it. In this process the oil is reacted at high temperature andunder pressure with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst such asnickel. If the process is brought to completion, the resulting productwill contain no essential fatty acid, but it also does not contain trans-fatty acids to interfere with essential fatty acid activity in the body.Partialhydrogenation results in a high proportion of trans-fatty acidsand numerous other altered, unnatural substances that interfere withnormal biochemical processes. (In Holland, the sale of margarinescontaining trans-fatty acids is prohibited by law.)Natural fatty acids have a molecular structure called cis-configu-ration in which both hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms ofa double bond are on the same side of a molecule. When subjected tohigh temperatures, the molecule is "twisted" so that the hydrogen atomsappear on oppositesides. The results of this miniscule change are quitedrastic: In biological systems, the trans-form "half-fits" into enzymeand membrane structures. It can't complete the functions that the cis-form performs, and at the same time, blocks out the cis form. Thus thetrans-forms take up the space, but won't do the work of the cis-essentialfatty acids.The trans-molecules are more sticky. For this reason, trans-fattyacids encourage fatty deposits in the arteries, liver, and other organs,and trans-fatty acids also make platelets more sticky, increasing thelikelihood of a clot in a small blood vessel, leading to strokes, heartattacks, or circulatory occlusions in other organs.Trans-fatty acids change the permeability of membranes. Thismeans that some molecules, which ordinarily would be kept out of thecell, can now get in, and others which normally should remain in thecell can now get out.Trans-fatty acids disrupt the vital functions of the essential fattyacids, and worsen essential fatty acid deficiency by interfering with theenzyme systems which transform the fatty acids into other importantmolecules, such as the prostaglandins.Trans-fatty acids interfere with certain enzymes that are neededto detoxify insecticides, and they increase the activity of some enzymesystems that have the ability to potentiate carcinogens.About 95% of the average intake of trans-fatty acids comes fromhydrogenated vegetable oil products, and the rest from animal prod-ucts, mainly beef and butter fat. The annual consumption of trans-fattyacids is almost twice as much as the total intake of all other unnaturalfood additives put together. The two main products from which we gettrans-fatty acids are margarines and shortenings or shortening oils,both of which are made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils.These appear literally in thousands of processed foods -- bread, rolls,crackers, pies, pretzels, cookies, donuts, breadsticks, muffins,breadcrumbs, stuffing, waffles, pop tarts, hamburger helper, biscuits,wheat thins, potato chips, candy bars, nondairy creamers, saladdressings, peanut butter, mayonnaise, ad infinitum.

Fatty AcidsOmega-3ExampleEicosapentaenoicAcid (EPA)SaturatedFatty AcidsAll AreNon-essentialExampleButyric AcidPalmitic AcidStearic AcidUnsaturatedFatty AcidsNon-essentialOmega-6EssentialOmega-3Omega-6ExampleGamma-Linolenic Acid(GLA)ExampleLinolenic Acid(LNA)ExampleLinoleic Acid(LA)Omega-9ExampleOleic Acid (OA)Table 1Unsaturated Fatty AcidsNumber ofTimesFatty AcidUnsaturatedFood SourcesOmega-3LNA(a)(Linolenic Acid)(b)3Flax Seeds, Pumpkin Seeds, Walnuts, Soy Beans, Dark Green LeavesSDA (Stearidonic Acid)4Seeds of certain members of the Borage familyEPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid)5Cold-water Fish (Salmon, Sardine, Mackerel, Trout)DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid)6Omega-6LA(a)(Linoleic Acid)2Safflower, Sunflower & Sesame Seeds, Wheat & Corn Germ Oils, WalnutGLA (Gamma-Linolenic Acid)3Evening Primrose Seed, Black Currant & Borage Oil, Mother's MilkAA (Arachidonic Acid)4Liver, Brain, MeatsDPA (Docosapentaenoic Acid)5Oils of certain fishOmega-9OA (Oleic Acid)1(c)Olive & Almond Oil, Pecan, Cashew, Filbert, Avocado(a) Essential Fatty Acid(b) Sometimes called "Alpha-Linolenic Acid"(c) 1x unsaturated = monounsaturatedTable 2Fatty Acid Composition of Different Seed Oils (Percent)NameLinolenic Acid (LNA)Linoleic Acid (LA)Oleic Acid (OA)SaturatedFlax5814199Pumpkin1542349Soy Bean9502615Walnut5512816Evening Primrose81(a)118Safflower751312Sunflower652312Corn592417Wheat Germ542818Sesame454213Almond17785Olive87616(a) Includes 9% Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA)Table 3

Consumers are being badly misled when it comes to advertisingfats and oils. For example "Cold Pressed" only means that no additionalheat was used during pressing; no mention is made of the heat generatedby the process itself."No Cholesterol" has no meaning whatsoever when it comes tovegetable oils since no products of plant origin contain any cholesterol.Margarine "for the good of your heart" -- there is not a single shred of evidence to back up the claim that margarine is good for the heart,or that it has any health benefits. Heart disease and cancer deaths have increased at a rate parallel to the increase in margarine sales and the sale of other hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated products. But the worst decepttion relates to the amounts of unsaturated fatslisted on margarine labels. The figures given include various unnaturalunsaturated fatty acids, including the trans-polyunsaturates. These not only are not health-giving, but are antagonistic to the health-givingessential fatty acids. They compete for enzymes, produce biologicallynon-functional derivatives, and interfere with the work of the essentialfatty acids in the body, food processors get away with this deception because the chemical structure of these trans-fatty acids does indeedqualify as "unsaturated". However, they act as saturated fats, andnutritionists who are aware of the situation sometimes redefine the transproportion as "saturate equivalent".Table 2 lists a number of unsaturated fatty acids which are notessential fatty acids but are nevertheless of great value. For example,the Omega-3 fatty acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) andDocosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) are associated with clean arteries andabsence of fatty degeneration diseases. They can both be manufacturedby the healthy human body, albeit slowly, from linolenic acid, butvarious degenerative conditions impair the body's ability to do so.Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid(DHA) are found in cold-water fish such as salmon, sardine, trout andmackerel. However, if the fish are raised on fish farms, the amountsof these Omega-6 fatty acids are greatly reduced.The Omega-6 fatty acid Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA) is theresult of the body's first biochemical step in the transformation of Linoleic Acid into the PG1 family of Prostaglandins.

Members of this series perform many important functions in different tissues of thehuman body, e.g., keeping blood platelets from sticking together,acting as a diuretic, opening up blood vessels, slowing down cholesterol production, preventing inflammations, making insulin work more effectively, improving nerve function, regulating calcium metabolism,improving functioning of the T-cells of the immune system, etc.Certain dietary deficiencies and disease conditions block theenzyme (delta-6-desaturase) that catalyzes this chemical reaction, thuspreventing the transformation of Linoleic Acid (LA) into Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA) from taking place.Also, excess cholesterol, excess saturated fats, trans-fatty acids,and alcohol interfere with this enzyme. Fortunately, Gamma-LinolenicAcid (GLA) is available as a food supplement so that the problem ofthe blocked enzyme may be bypassed. The immature livers of new-borns and infants also do not produce enough of the enzyme, but naturecompensates for this by supplying Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA)with the mother's milk.Besides the trans-fatty acids there are a number of other toxicelements contained in oils. Cotton seed oil contains a cyclopropene fattyacid which has toxic effects on the liver and gall bladder and alsointereferes with the functions of the essential fatty acids. Cotton seedoil has the highest content of pesticide residues. It also containsgossypol, which irritates the digestive tract, causes water retention inthe lungs and shortness of breath.Rape (Canola) and mustard seed oils contain erucic acid whichcauses fatty degeneration of heart, kidney, adrenals, and thyroid. Rapeseed oils used to contain as much as 40% erucic acid, but geneticistshave bred new varieties which now contain less than 1% of erucic acid.Herring and capelin oils contain between 10 and 20% cetoleicacid, which is similar in its effects to erucic acid.It was mentioned earlier that labeling of fats and oils can be verydeceptive. To truly inform consumers, the following informationshould be presented:• Amounts of cis-LA (Linoleic Acid) and cis-LNA (LinolenicAcid) in grams per 100 grams of product.• Amounts of trans-fatty acid isomers in grams per 100 gramsof product.• Maximum temperature reached during processing (should bebelow 500 C.)• Whether light and air were excluded during processing.• Date of pressing (or expiration date).• Whether oil was mechanically pressed or chemically ex-tracted.• Whether oil was refined (degummed, bleached, deodorized).• Whether oil was hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated.• Whether seeds were organically grown.Sugar is considered by most nutritionists to be the major dietarycause of degenerative diseases. While it does play a major role indegeneration, much of the effect is due to the fats into which the bodyconverts excess sugar, and the fats produced therefrom then create major health problems for the body. Complex carbohydrates are digested and absorbed slowly, because they contain fiber and othermaterials which slow down digestion, and because the starches theycontain are only slowly converted into sugars. For this reason, theenergy they provide is burned up in body functions at the rate at whichit is produced. They also contain the vitamin and mineral factors thatallow the carbohydrates to "burn clean" into carbon dioxide and water.Refined carbohydrates (e.g., white flour), on the other hand, aredigested and absorbed much more rapidly and can overload the bloodwith glucose. Also, because they lack important minerals and vitamins,the body cannot burn them properly, and therefore has to deal with themanother way, for instance by turning them into fat.Sugars are absorbed even faster than refined carboyhydrates, andare therefore much more dangerous. The body has to do somethingabout the high glucose levels because when they go too high, acondition is created which may result in sugar shock, coma, or death.To prevent this, the body has to store the excess glucose. For millions of years this has been the way to prepare for famine in times of feasting.High blood glucose triggers the pancreas to secrete insulin, whichstimulates the conversion of sugars into fatty acids which are thenstored as triglycerides.There are fatty acids of high quality and of low quality. The formerheal, and the latter kill. Excess sugars and refined carbohydratesproduce the kind that kill -- the sticky, saturated kind of fatty acid thatincreases the chance of stroke, heart attack and arteriosclerosis. But justas the wrong fats destroy health, so the right fats can be used to help restore health. This is being done by knowledgeable doctors all overthe world.

One of the pioneers in the therapeutic use of the essential unsaturated fatty acids is Johanna Budwig in Freudenstadt, Germany.She has had excellent results treating various degenerative diseases, including cancer, using dietary means that include daily consumptionof a mixture of skim milk kwark and fresh, natural, unheated flax seedoil. Her diet also includes plenty of carrots, fresh greens, whole grains, rainbow trout, nuts and some herbs.


1. Udo Erasmus, Fats and Oils: The Complete Guide to Fats and Oils in Health and Nutrition, Alive Books, Op.Cit., 1991.

2. Leo Galland, M.D, Superimmunity for Kids, Copestone Press,New York.

3. William L. Fischer, How to Fight Cancer & Win, Fischer

Publishing.4. Benjamin T. Burton, The Heinz Handbook of Nutrition,McGraw-Hill.5. Alfred H. Wertheim, Natural Poisons in Natural Foods, LyleStuart.Also, available through The Arthritis Trust of America/TheRheumatoid Disease Foundation, 7376 Walker Road, Fairview, TN37062-8141.6. Dr. Johanna Budwig, Flax Oil As A True Aid Against Arthritis,Heart Infarction, Cancer and Other Diseases.7. Dr. Johanna Budwig, The Oil Protein Diet Cookbook.

Copyright 1994
All rights reserved by the The Roger Wyburn-Mason and Jack M. Blount Foundation for Eradication of Rheumatoid Disease AKA The Arthritis Trust of America,7376 Walker Road, Fairview, Tn 37062

Dianne Jacobs Thompson  Est. 2003
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The Misdiagnosis of "Shaken Baby Syndrome" --an unproven theory without scientific support, now in disrepute and wreaking legal and medical havoc world-wide
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